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Life Cycle Analysis of Building Materials in China

Building construction can produce emissions so it is necessary to calculate using a life cycle analysis of building materials. The result of this study is to find the hotspot of carbon emission from overall building structure.

Life Cycle Analysis of Building Materials
Life Cycle Analysis of Building Materials in China


Highlights life cycle analysis of building materials

There are 4 things that you will get from this research, namely

(1) carbon emissions from buildings in various regions,

(2) carbon emissions from various types of industrial buildings,

(3) carbon emissions from heating and air conditioning, and

(4) carbon emissions in the entire life cycle


Intro life cycle analysis of building materials

"Carbon" has already been linked to the economy, and future economic development must be more closely linked with carbon emissions.


Due to the importance of carbon emission energy management research, many research teams have started to study carbon emission methods and development models, and have achieved good results.


The author partially reduces carbon emissions from recycled materials to avoid double counting, and also considers carbon emissions caused by fiber optic cabling, mobile workshop solar consumption and electrical energy consumption.


Under three different modes of operation: energy consumption mode, energy-producing mode, and environmentally friendly mode, the authors comprehensively evaluate the performance of the DSR aggregator to study its impact on management costs and carbon emissions from system operation.


The life cycle assessment method is an excellent method. Based on four arguments, the authors propose an integrated "energy harvesting" approach to ensure consistency between renewable and non-renewable energy.


This parametric model takes into account the normally limited data available to LCA practitioners, while providing consistent and reliable results, thus providing a time-dependent LCI of forest carbon flux per unit of product.


This method provides a common method for farm type, data processing, and farm-level LCA regional inference, proving that it can be used to estimate the effect of innovative agricultural practices on regional impacts.


Because of the effectiveness and specificity of the LCA, can we apply the LCA method to the analysis of carbon emissions during building construction to solve various problems in energy management?


Currently, there are international models for calculating carbon emissions in forestry, agriculture, cities, etc., except for buildings.


Domestic and foreign undergraduate research on building carbon emissions is still based on basic statistical data and theoretical analysis.


The focus of research on building emission models is at the building use stage.

Carbon emissions and energy consumption from development activities are always linked. Meanwhile, each type of building has different emission characteristics. Therefore, it is necessary to explain in detail the carbon coefficient from various sources.

life cycle analysis of building materials can show the carbon emissions from each process cycle, thus helping us identify the hotspots where the emissions are greatest.


Evaluation life cycle analysis of building materials


Schematic of cold and hot source equipment configuration for prefabricated buildings

This article selects three commonly used forms of cold and heat, calculates energy consumption and carbon emissions, and compares the relationship between carbon emissions from different cold and heat source schemes. The specific scheme is described below:

(1) Option 1: Cooler + gas boiler


Host: Three screw carrier cooling units, cooling capacity: 880k W (cold water inlet and outlet temperature 7/12 C, water temperature in and out of cooler 30/35 C. Cooling water system: 2 Ryoden cooling towers (single unit) flow 55.26 L / s, motor power 5.5k W); three single-stage pumps, two for one spare (single unit: flow 55 L / s, head 25 m, power 18.5k W).


(2) Option 2: Direct fueled lithium bromide absorption hot and cold water units


Organizer: Two cold and hot water-absorbing lithium bromide carriers, with a heating capacity of 826 k W (water inlet and outlet temperature 56/60 C), cooling capacity of 1085 k W (cold water supply and return water temperature 7/12 C, water supply cooling water temperature return 32/38  C). Cooling water system: two cooling towers (one unit with flow rate of 76.90 L / s, motor power 7.5k W); three single-stage, two-use and one spare pumps (single unit: flow rate 72.2 L / s, head 28 m, power 30k W).


(3) Option 3: Air source heat pump unit


Host: Three units of carrier water-water heat pump with heating capacity of 675k W (water temperature 45, outdoor ambient temperature 7 C), cooling capacity 725k W (water temperature 7 C, outdoor temperature 35). The third option eliminates the need for a cooling system.


Results and discussion life cycle analysis of building materials

In order to clearly state the proportional relationship between the energy consumption of various energy sources from the three schemes, the different energy consumption is summarized,


Analysis of the carbon emissions of prefabricated buildings

(1) The construction stagei:

At this stage, carbon discharges are primarily thought about in 2 elements: the stage of transferring building products and the stage of building construction (on website). For carbon discharges at construction websites, we utilize the energy consumption estimation technique to determine based upon the carbon emission design specified in this paper. The computation outcomes reveal that the carbon emission from building construction is greater than 10 times that of the transport of building products.


(2) The stage of using the building:

This short post disregards carbon discharges triggered by construction devices, green area carbon sinks, sprinkle therapy, cooling agent leakages, and so on., and just thinks about the carbon discharges triggered by the energy consumption of home heating, a/c, warm water, and illumination throughout building utilize. This short post determines carbon discharges based upon the analytical typical energy consumption of domestic structures in seriously chilly areas. The use time of the building is half a century.

Carbon emissions from electric power were the highest at the usage stage, amounting to 64.43% of the total, while coal carbon emissions contributed 30.22%, and natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas were less.


(3) Demolition and recycling of buildings:

Carbon resources at this stage consist of carbon discharges from transport of construction squander, carbon discharges from energy consumption throughout building demolition, and carbon discharges from reusing building products. The high top quality of construction squander is determined based upon 80% of the overall mass of building products


(4) Evaluation of carbon discharges throughout the whole building life process:

(1) The percentage of carbon emission in the building utilize stage is the greatest, getting to greater than 75%; (2) carbon discharges at the manufacturing stage of building products are greater compared to the overall carbon discharges throughout the construction and demolition stages; (3) The variety of phases of utilizing construction and manufacturing of building products gets to greater than 90% of the overall. 

Just by decreasing carbon discharges throughout the utilize stage could we decrease the general carbon discharges of structures.

From the evaluation, it could be seen that the overall carbon discharges throughout the building utilize stage are the greatest and ended up being the concentrate of decreasing carbon discharges. Nevertheless, the recurring carbon emission each unit time stage is greater compared to the building utilize stage, and there's likewise the prospective for big carbon abatement.

 For that reason, although we are interested in carbon discharges throughout the building utilize stage, the various other stages ought to not be disregarded.


Conclusion of life cycle analysis of building materials


Carbon emissions from buildings are influenced by the location where the building is located. Broadly speaking, the more extreme the temperature of an area (very cold or very hot), the greater the carbon emissions.

Meanwhile, areas that are neither too cold nor too hot have smaller emissions. This is because areas with extreme temperatures require cooling or heating which produces emissions.

The largest emissions from various types of materials include: cement, brick, steel and lime. Meanwhile, in terms of building structure, there are 3 structures that have the biggest emissions, namely, the frame structure, the brick-concrete structure and the steel-concrete structure. However, of the three that have the smallest emissions is the frame structure.

the construction use phase resulted in high carbon emissions of 75% - 80%. The key to reducing carbon emissions is at the construction stage and the production stage of building materials because carbon emissions are more than 90% of the total

In order to produce low-carbon building materials, it is necessary to pay attention to the following:

1. the complexity of the building life cycle,

2. fragmentation of the building sector,

3. climate variability, and

4. diversity of building types.

The framework for a low-carbon building evaluation system is reviewed in life cycle analysis of building materials, per capita carbon emissions, equipment carbon emission reduction rates, and climate correction.


Source: Carbon emission energy management analysis of LCA-Based fabricated building construction


Aslo read: Study about textile life cycle assessment


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